The Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAA RAS) is one of the world's largest astronomical institutions. The IAA RAS carries out research in the fields of new methods of astrometry and geodynamics, ephemeris astronomy, classical and relativistic celestial mechanics, radioastronomy and radio interferometry, space geodesy, and fundamental positioning and timing services.
In addition to the wide range of research carried out, the IAA RAS publishes Russian and international yearbooks and almanacs, containing the ephemerides of the Sun, Moon, large and small planets, and stars. These are calculated with the highest possible degree of precision in accordance with standards set by the International Astronomical Union. The Institute also publishes data on various astronomical phenomena—solar and lunar eclipses, rising and setting times of the sun, planetary configurations and more.
Radar astronomy is one of the most effective methods of Earth-based remote sensing of asteroids, comets and planets of the solar system. The size, shape, spin period, high spatial resolution radar maps, surface and subsurface physical properties can be obtained using radar observations. Such observations suggest a transmitting and receiving antenna systems, a highly sensitive equipment for detecting echo signals and a software for observations scheduling and data processing. The Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAA RAS) regularly participates in international radar observations of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) and the Moon.
Radio observations make it possible to determine the position and velocity of spacecrafts to calculate and improve the parameters of their orbits with high accuracy. Among the methods of radio observation of the spacecrafts the Range, Doppler and Radio Interferometry (VLBI) techniques can be specified. Ranging measurements allow to obtain the distance to the object or pseudorange, Doppler measurements give the change in the velocity of the object along the line of sight, and the direction to the object is determined by VLBI observations. For conducting these observations we need to have receiving antenna systems with highly sensitive equipment for recording spacecraft signals and a software system for preparing observations and processing the data. Spacecrafts are regulary observed by various methods using the radio telescopes of Quasar VLBI Network in Svetloe, Zelenchukskaya and Badary observatories both for obtaining the parameters of their orbital motion and for research in the field of space physics.